Faghighi and P. Kalra's works appeared in conference proceedings. The workshop was moderated by Dr Saxena.
The start of marked further strengthening of bilateral relations between Turkmenistan and the United Kingdom. The government of Turkmenistan has signed an agreement with two departments of Cambridge University, to enhance the teaching and learning of English in Turkmen schools. Some of the best graduate students from Central Asia will be able to study at Cambridge thanks to a co-funding scholarship agreement signed last week between the Cambridge Overseas Trust and the University of Central Asia. A CCAF initiated project gets renewed!
A senior delegation from the University of Central Asia visited Cambridge on 9 November, to sign a renewed agreement with the Cambridge Trust for a programme of co-funded PhD scholarships. Up to nine full scholarships will be available for students starting their research in Cambridge in and the two following years.
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Skip to Main Content. Search in: This Journal Anywhere. Advanced search. Submit an article Journal homepage. Original Articles. Armine Ishkanian Correspondence A. Ishkanian lse. Pages Published online: 23 Apr Additional information Notes 1. Cook, op cit Ref 4, p 4. Midgeley, op cit Ref 3, p 9. Mkandawire, op cit, Ref 9. Cook, op cit, Ref 4, p 2. Mkandawire, op cit Ref 9, p Midgley, op cit Ref 3, p 7. Mkandawire, op cit Ref 9, p 9. Mkandawire, op cit, Ref 9, p Falkingham et al , , p Dudwick op cit, Ref 29, p Mongolia, the second oldest communist country, introduced a centrally-planned economic system just after World War II.
In contrast, a command economy was adopted in the southern part of Vietnam in , only a few years before the beginning of attempts at reform, which subsequently developed into transition to a market economy. The length of the centrally-planned system is considered to correlate closely to its penetration, the degree of price distortion and, as a result, the degree of reform necessity.
As an indicator of the penetration of the principle of a centrally-planned system, let us adopt the share of the labor force working in state enterprises. This figure was In Mongolia in , just before the beginning of reform, the figure was In Russia in , before Perestroika, It is therefore reasonable to conclude that the depth of reform required in Russia and Mongolia is greater than that in China. The coastal regions of China and the southern part of Vietnam operated market economies of their own before their leaders established centrally-planned systems, although these were not well developed.
It is assumed that the memories of the rules of the market game experienced previously were maintained in these societies, either consciously or unconsciously, until the onset of later reforms. These countries were fortunate in being able to utilize these assets when they began their attempts at reform. On the other hand, Mongolia moved from being a nomadic society to the adoption of a centrally-planned system without the benefit of experiencing a market economy.
This serious handicap can also be observed in the former Soviet Union, including the republics of Central Asia. In these countries, adjustment to the new and unfamiliar rules of the market economy was very difficult. Another important feature of transitional economies in Asia is the greater influence of agriculture, particularly in comparison with Eastern Europe and Russia. While in China in farmers accounted for 69 percent of the total labor force, the share was only 14 percent in the former USSR immediately prior to Perestroika Kondo and Wada, and Sachs and Wing, This difference between the industrial structures played an important role as one determinant of the transitional strategies adopted in these two regions.
These economies were therefore inevitably severely affected when the CMEA collapsed in the late s. The merits of this are especially apparent in China and Vietnam. After the adoption of open-door policies, China and Vietnam became integral parts of the rapidly- developing intra-regional networks in East Asia. In particular, the connections with overseas Chinese and Vietnamese residents enabled these two countries to increase exports and attract foreign investment.
They also enjoyed the advantages of being latecomers, learning the effectiveness of an outward-oriented development strategy from the experiences of their neighbouring predecessors.
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Thus they were able to adopt tried and proven methods to realize outward-oriented growth, taking advantage of the external economies of dynamic develop- ment in the region. Unfortunately, Mongolia is more physically remote from the spreading dynamism in East Asia and so has not benefited to the same degree from these factors.
Notwithstanding the diversity within Asia described above, at least two common features can be observed among the Asian economies in transition with the exception of Mongolia and the former Soviet republics of Central Asia. These are their improved macroeconomic performance and the mode of economic reform adopted. The macroeconomic indicators of transitional economies in Asia compare favourably with those of Eastern Europe and Russia.
This is particularly apparent in terms of economic growth and export growth. During the period ,China recorded annual growth rates of 9. These figures were among the highest in the world. Between and , Vietnam's average GDP growth rate was 7. This economic growth has accelerated in the s and Vietnam has shown rapid and consistent export growth.
Lao PDR and Cambodia have also maintained positive growth rates. On the other hand, the Mongolian economy has suffered from a decline in production since the introduction of reform measures. This phenomenon has also been observed in Eastern Europe and Russia, although some Eastern European economies, notably Poland, have begun to experience a recovery in this regard.
Although the Vietnamese economy once suffered from hyper-inflation, this has recently been brought under control and is now under 10 percent, a considerable achievement. Inflationary pressure has been chronic in China since the mids, and there have been forced periods of stabilization brought about by belt-tightening policies. However, it should be noted that despite such pressures, the price situation in China has been much more stable than has been the case in Eastern Europe and Russia.
One very striking contrast between Asia again with the exception of Mongolia and Eastern Europe and the former USSR is the fact that the economic reforms in the former were accompanied by increases in production, whereas the latter economies suffered serious declines in GDP. Such countries as China, Vietnam and Lao PDR spent considerable time conducting reforms within the framework of a centrally-planned system before shifting to explicit transition-type reforms and policies. The smooth and continuous shift from the long prepara- tory stage to the overt transition to a market economy is an important characteristic feature of transition in Asia.
In Mongolia and Russia, the preparatory stage Perestroika in Russia was very short, and in Eastern Europe the continuity aspect has been of lesser importance, as attempts at "market socialism" were severely suppressed for political reasons.