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The conservative vision is that people will come to value the privileges of choice…when they see how much in their lives must always remain unchosen. Conservative scepticism is quite distinct from Cartesian or external world scepticism, therefore, since this scepticism is based on reason; rather, it is sceptical about the claims of theoretical reason, in politics and ethics. Nor does its scepticism constitute a critique of society in the Marxist sense.

For conservatives, society rests on prejudice, not reason; prejudice is not irrational, but simply unreasoning. Burke advocated educated prejudice as an antidote to its bigoted forms—arguably, not a rejection of reason, but a scepticism about its inordinate pretensions.

Philosophers might speculate about why we have the duties that we do, but prejudice makes us act, without having to calculate all the consequences—or indeed to reason about ends. This is not the irrationalism of Nietzsche or Freud, for whom much of human behaviour is irrationally driven, but rather, a non-rationalist standpoint. It is sceptical about proposals of reform based on a priori commitment to a value such as freedom or equality.

See 2. Conservatives believe that values of justice, freedom, and truth are important and should be pursued by the state, but they interpret those values in a concrete fashion. As we have seen, it is generally recognised that conservatism is not dogmatic reaction.

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It advocates piecemeal, moderate reform, which follows from its scepticism concerning reason, and its valuing of experience concerning human affairs. But change must be cautious, because knowledge is imperfect and consequences can be unintended. According to conservatives, institutions and morals evolve, their weaknesses become apparent and obvious political abuses are corrected; but ancient institutions embody a tacit wisdom that deserves respect.

Conservatives are sceptical of large-scale constitutional, economic or cultural planning, because behaviour and institutions have evolved through the wisdom of generations, which cannot easily be articulated. The notion of tradition is central to conservatism, and its self-conscious, contrastive use arises only in modernity.

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For conservatives, vital political relations are organic. Unlike reactionary thinkers, they regard traditions not as static, but as in a gentle and gradual flux, encouraged by the astute reformer. Reform must be practically and not theoretically-based:. I must see with my own eyes…touch with my own hands not only the fixed but the momentary circumstances, before I could venture to suggest any political project whatsoever I must see the means of correcting the plan…I must see the things; I must see the men.

For Kekes, conservatism adopts a stance of scepticism between extremes of rationalism and fideism belief based on faith , and steers a middle course of pessimism between claims of perfectibility and corruptibility 54, 89, Conservatives aim to. Kekes It is reaction and not conservatism that is inherently authoritarian.

For conservatives, individuals and local communities are better assessors of their own needs and problems than distant bureaucrats. Free from utopian planning, conservatives hold, society finds its own, largely beneficial, shape. But conservatism is generally regarded as a philosophy, if not a systematic one. Two contrasting interpretations of conservatism distinguish it from mere pragmatism.

The judgement of whether something is broken or runs reasonably well appeals to values accepted in the relevant society. Thus conservatives in reasonably functioning socialist, feudal and fascist countries advocate different modes of social organisation and gradual improvement, according to prevailing values.

On this view, conservative particularism is relativistic. On this interpretation, particularism does not imply relativism. Revolutionary systems, and autocratic systems with no possibility of incremental change—societies that do not exhibit living traditions—are not amenable to a conservative outlook. Conservatism is situational, but some situations do not permit conservative responses.

The sarcastic dismissal of Burke by a liberal defender of the Revolution, J. In the case of public institutions, Mr. Burke had…worked himself into an artificial admiration of the bare fact of existence; especially ancient existence. Everything was to be protected, not because it was good, but, because it existed. Evil, to render itself an object of reverence in his eye, required only to be realised. James Mill Vol.

Enlightenment's Wake: Politics and Culture at the Close of the Modern Age

V, —1. This non-relativist position is minimally rational and universal, while remaining particularist. This terminology is elucidated further at 2. Lock regards 1 and 2 as an unBurkean choice between constructed opposites, arguing that Burke is not strongly relativist, but recognises temporal and geographical differences that amount to a kind of relativism.

Perhaps he overlooks the contestability of conceptions of the good life, and of arrangements that preserve it; liberals, for instance, stress the value of individual freedom, independent of burdensome constraints of tradition. According to 2 , there is a conservative conception of the good life, and of the arrangements that preserve it—one that rejects the over-valuation of Enlightenment rationalism and revolution. But as we will see, conservatives must steer a course between unconservative mere pragmatism, and unconservative substantive policy.

The issue recurs throughout this entry, especially in sections 2.

But these are hard to separate. Liberals and socialists stress the malleability of human nature under the influence of changeable historical conditions. The anti-conservative Rousseau had an optimistic conception of human nature, blaming government and society for failings that—according to conservatives—belong to individuals.

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Conservatives, in contrast, regard human nature as weak and fallible, unalterably selfish rather than altruistic Kekes Scruton is typical in regarding human beings as frail creatures of limited sympathy not easily extending to those remote in space or time Scruton Conservatism is popularly confused with neo-conservatism and with libertarianism. But right libertarians and neo-conservatives, unlike Burkean conservatives, reject state planning for doctrinaire reasons.

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Conservatives reject ideologies, of which neo-liberalism is one. As Oakeshott argues. A plan to resist all planning may be better than its opposite, but it belongs to the same style of politics. And only in a society already deeply infected with Rationalism will the conversion of the traditional resources of resistance to the tyranny of Rationalism into a self-conscious ideology be considered a strengthening of those resources.

It seems that now, in order to participate in politics [one must have] a doctrine…. Oakeshott []: Conservatives oppose rational planning, but do not dogmatically oppose planning that works. Scruton, for instance, believes that a market economy is most conducive to prosperity, but like Adam Smith, insists that markets should work within, and not erode, customs and moral and legal traditions. Conservatism differs from neo-conservatism and libertarianism in motivation or formal features, therefore. It has been argued Harvey ; Ha Joon Chang that neo-conservatives do not reduce state intervention, but simply shift its priorities, while maintaining its massive scale.

Nozick and conservatism seem to share a commitment to the invisible hand of the free market, and rejection of an extensive state. But Nozick is more plausibly regarded as a right libertarian, an extreme classical or neo-liberal. Conservatives avoid such principles.

Perhaps neo-liberalism is libertarianism plus related economic doctrines, while neo-conservatism is libertarianism plus elements of traditional conservatism. Neo-liberals like Milton Friedman question drug-prohibition and conscription, which conservatives and neo-conservatives would not. Feudalism is a contested label for the economic system prevalent in Europe from after the decline of the Roman Empire until the 16 th century, and which rested on the holding of land in return for labour; in France, it persisted as the ancien regime up till the French Revolution.

A sympathiser with the ancien regime such as Burke could therefore be regarded as a feudal romantic. On feudalism, see Dyer , and Pocock Like some socialists, many 19 th century conservatives reacted against industrialism and laissez-faire capitalism with a feudal nostalgia. Conservatism may seem to share the laissez-faire doctrine, imputed to Adam Smith, of the invisible hand—according to which, in a free market, unintended consequences of actions tend to promote the general good.

The evolutionary nature and anti-statism of laissez-faire theory appeal to conservatives, but as we saw, they would not reject planning in a doctrinaire way. Hayek valued local, transient, untheoretical knowledge, and advocated unfettered markets on the conservative sceptical grounds that they best realise organic social institutions. For him it is. Aughey 23; also Honderich It is true that no revolution has proclaimed inequality, while for Burke, the social order is rooted in it; and conservatives may defend an established ruling class, regarding ruling as a skill likely to be most highly developed there.

To reiterate, conservatism is not essentially associated with aristocracy and hereditary forms of government, or opposed to democracy. For conservatives, as for Millian liberals, the viability of democracy depends on the period and conditions. While conservatism should not be assimilated with neo-conservatism or neo-liberalism, many conservatives have converted to the latter:.


A political outlook that in Burke, Disraeli and Salisbury was sceptical of the project of the Enlightenment and suspicious of the promise of progress has mortgaged its future on a wager on indefinite economic growth and unfettered market forces. Gray Scruton also laments this development, while John Harris comments on the enduring tensions that Thatcher exposed in Conservatism:. If you profess to believe in both the unrestrained market and such old Tory touchstones as family, nation and community, you will Conservatism is further elucidated by contrasting it with liberalism.