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Introduction

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Gender Mainstreaming and the European Union: Interdisciplinarity, Gender Studies and CDA

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Gender Policies in the European Union: Foreword by Louise A. Tilly (Studies in European Union)

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Farachio, M. Finsterbusch, K. Mexico City, Frankel, D. Public access to governmental information. Seminar Bulletin. This bilateral arrangement proved vastly more effective in stopping irregular migration than the Frontex patrols that had taken place each year between — Frontex patrols in this region stopped in as Malta declined to participate, citing concerns over a condition that mandated Member States to receive intercepted boats Camilleri This condition was later annulled Camilleri It should be a source of concern to human rights activists that the court took from mid to early to decide the case, during which time uncertainty about the legitimacy of the practice prevailed.

While the women interviewed in this research did not talk about any direct experiences of interdiction, they did discuss interacting with other vessels at sea. One participant described interacting with people on another boat, receiving minimal assistance: We set off at 4 am and it took two days. On the second day the sea was very rough. We were sitting with our knees up to our heads and the water was directly behind me.

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We were so scared. A big boat came past on the second day and we asked them for petrol. The boat said no. They said we are only three hours from Malta. At night you can see for the lights.

Then we arrived in Malta. The Council of Europe has recently called NATO countries to account for failing to come to the aid of a boat carrying 72 illegalized travellers during the recent Libyan conflict Davis After 15 days at sea, their boat eventually drifted back to Libya with only 11 people alive. Two others later died ashore. These incidents demonstrate the reluctance of key players to save the lives of illegalized travellers at risk at sea. Transit is a period of significant environmental, social, sexual and legal risk for women who participated in this study, where there are not clear demarcations for state and non state actors to be considered accountable or engaged for either the direct or structural violence Galtung explained.

Diversity and the European Public Sphere. Towards a Citizens' Europe

The experience of transit is a period of direct and structural violence for refugee women journeying from Malta to Somalia. The violence occurs in a range of sites. Considering transit as a period of direct and structural violence seeks to make often hidden or unspoken violence more visible to EU policy makers. Despite evidence of agency in some contexts, structural violence is clearly relatable to the broader conditions in which individual and collective violence is experienced.

The failure to protect produces conditions that generate and sustain violence throughout the transit period. Moreover, border securitization that is based on the broad exclusion of undesirable migrants compounds and extends the direct violence. That racialized and gendered groups of illegalized travellers are drawn into making long, dangerous and expensive journeys to the EU is illustrative of the structural violence of blanket border securitization, especially for those from North Africa. The securitization of migration contributes to the conditions in which mobility comes at a higher price, literally and metaphorically.

Whilst much has changed in North Africa and particularly Libya since this research was conducted, this transit region remains strategically important to both the EU and those in need of refugee protection. Recent statistics reveal that irregular migration to the EU via the Central Mediterranean has not returned to its peak, although more were using this route in than in and Frontex The number of Tunisian nationals arriving in the EU fell in the aftermath of an agreement negotiated between Italy and Tunisia on return Frontex An increasing number of Sub-Saharan African nationals are travelling through the Central Mediterranean, with Eritreans comprising the largest nationality and overtaking Somalis Frontex Many have their asylum claims accepted; 90 per cent of those that applied for asylum in Malta in successfully gained some form of humanitarian protection NSO Libya is again the subject of intense EU securitization efforts.

Frontex reports that a lack of professional and technical expertise amongst law enforcement agencies within Libya make migration management cooperation with the country an urgent and core priority for the EU. Some argue it was developed to prevent irregular migration from North Africa to the EU in the aftermath of events such as the Arab Spring Hayes and Vermeulen Its impact on refugee protection will have to be closely monitored.

Interviews with women who have travelled through North Africa and successfully sought refugee protection in Malta, illustrate the fact that the risks involved in irregular border crossing have gendered dimensions.