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Brazil represents a context where institutional constraints i. Moreover, the highly integrated organizational environment of the MNC further reinforces this aspect. In turn, this makes it more compelling to discover how workers can nevertheless strategically activate some resources to improve their conditions.
We conduct a case study and collect empirical data through semi-structured interviews and documentary analysis.
Este modelo nos permite observar los recursos institucionales que los trabajadores pueden movilizar activamente. In addition to the three anonymous reviewers, the author wishes to thank Ashorkor Tetteh for his important editorial support as well as Mathieu Dupuis CRIMT doctoral student for his comments on the first version of this article.
Keywords: embedded agency, workers, multinational corporations, varieties of capitalism, Brazil. Palabras clave: agencia incorporada, trabajadores, corporaciones multinacionales, variedades del capitalismo, Brasil. The impact of MNCs on the Danish collective bargaining system is limited. In general foreign MNCs experience the Danish model of collective bargaining as a guarantee for a peaceful labour market. Most MNCs have signed collective agreements.
However, both are estimates based on surveys. In this connection more works in manufacturing than in service. If so, what if any relationship do these company agreements have with the sector agreement? If so, please elaborate and give examples. MNCs have not been source of recent change in the collective bargaining agenda in any of the given examples a-d. This system seems to be so well consolidated that new HR policies that questions the fundamentals of the IR-system have very limited influence. MNCs have not been introducing new issues to the bargaining agenda at sector level.
This is the task of the labour market organisations. However, the recent decades have been characterised by a decentralisation process concerning the collective bargaining competences. Many issues in the sector agreement are negotiated further at company level. Pay, for instance, is decided at company level. Therefore there might be cases where MNCs have introduced new issues on the local agenda, but they are not known. It should be added that the agenda already contains the examples given in the question and that employee participation practices are rather developed through agreements as well as legislation.
Company agreements are mainly confined to issues on which sector agreements provide openings and a framework.
Notes on the Contributors - Oxford Handbooks
If yes, please give examples. According to Danish labour law it is not possible to leave or change a sector agreement in force. If a MNC after the peace period wants to cancel a collective agreement, the trade unions have the right to conflict for a renewal of the agremeent. No examples of MNCs leaving a sector agreement are known. A known case is the Danish based pharmaceutical company Novo. On the other hand Novo has concluded their own agreements with the trade unions, which are a little better that the normal standard for the sector.
There is no known evidence for this kind of behaviour. MNCs generally accept Danish conditions based on sector agreements. It is unusual for the management to explicitly threaten with relocation of operations during local negotiations; however for many companies outsourcing and relocation is a real possibility and more subtle threats will occasionally appear in local negotiations. Such behaviour mainly occurs in the production sector, among others meat production, where the destination countries include Germany and Central- and Eastern European countries.
In general the conditions of the local relations are of great importance: High trust between the partners results in few outsourcing threats, while low trust results in more explicit threats. There is one well-known example of openly threatening with relocation. In the management of the international meat company Danish Crown threatened to shut down the Tulip Slaughterhouse in the city of Ringsted. Ultimately the Tulip Slaughterhouse was closed and the production moved to Germany.
There are some examples that foreign-owned multinationals have tried to introduce Human Resources policies from operations in other countries. This especially applies to North American companies and multinationals from countries where the negotiation culture is significantly different from the Danish. For instance, when the American radio company Motorola bought the Danish radio manufacturer Storno in the management tried to introduce tougher - American - Human Resources policies, especially concerning lay-off practices.
Ultimately Motorola accepted the Danish conditions. Since the purchase The Danish Metalworkers' Union Dansk Metal has criticised an increase in work pressure and poorer working conditions. A unique example of multinationals engaged in transnational negotiations is Nordea - the leading Nordic financial company registered at the Stockholm, Helsinki and Copenhagen stock exchanges.
Nordea was one of the first multinationals to make use of the European Company Statute, which allow companies to operate at European level. As a response four trade unions organising the Scandinavian employees formed the transnational trade union - Nordea Union DKN. These transnational structures deal with issues such as the working environment, stress, training and strategic development - though core isssues as pay and other employment conditions are still decided at national level. The employee representatives are also consulted on the preparations when Nordea enterprises move their activities from one country to another or outsource activities.
One issue addressed by the Nordea Union was to obtain collective agreements in a newly formed joint venture company between Nordea and IBM.
Henry Ford II Professor of the Social Sciences
The members covers manufacturing, trade and transport. In fact only a few Danish multinationals stay outside DI — one example is Novo. Not the least because their size. Membership fee is paid according to the total wage paid to the employees. An informal rule is that, the larger the company the more influence on the policy of the association as a whole, i.
The MNCs are not directly involved in sector negotiation. DI appoints their own negotiators to bargain with the counterpart. Individual companies are not present at sector negotiations. MNCs are not particularly pressing for reforms in the Danish bargaining system. Probably because sector agreements are already confined to establish minimum standards and a basic framework to be further negotiated at company level. Furthermore, one of the selling points of the Danish IR-system when attracting foreign direct investments is the high level of industrial peace and long-lasting typically three years collective agreements.
Interfering in the system on other areas will invariably also change the unions willingness to accept long-lasting collective agreements. And, it should be added, to be party to the cooperation at company level that is stipulated in the sector agreement.
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In general foreign MNCs accept and even appreciate the Danish model of regulation of the labour market with strong representation of the social partners. MNCs have limitid impact on agenda and outcomes collective bargaining, as mentioned above. There are no examples that unions have responded to any MNCs in particular.
The scope of company negotiations provided in the sector agreement is substantial. There is no evidence that MNCs should try to broaden this further, and if they did, it would even be in the spirit of the sector framework agreement. Furthermore, changes in the scope of company negotiations can only take place if both parties agree. Please give examples. Danish trade unions are generally displeased when MNCs threaten to relocate or introduce foreign Human Resource policies, and have often responded by organising strikes or threatening with legal action as mentioned above.
Comparison of labour costs is not a typical issue at the local agenda in MNCs. If it was, the unions would no doubt point to the agreed wage levels in the sector or sub-sector. There is no national minimum wages in Denmark. Changes in this pattern due to the current economic recession are not seen yet, but it is possible that Danish trade unions will be forced to make concessions in future bargaining rounds at sector as well as at company level.
Please provide examples. There are a few examples. Among others the German-owned supermarket chain Lidl with more than 6, stores in a number of European countries was targeted by Danish trade unions in when it came clear that the company would set up stores in Denmark. At the time Lidl had a public reputation of poor staff policy, low wages and anti-union attitude. One of the largest unions in Denmark, Union of Commercial and Clerical Employees HK threatened to take industrial action to force the enterprise to sign an agreement.
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