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Some impinge on biology. Like the discussion on liposomes and dendrimers. Liposomes especially seem like useful drug delivery vessels. Compact and modular.

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The cover colour diagram is pretty. Unfortunately, none of the inside diagrams is in colour. For the specialist, one important note is that each chapter has an extensive list of references; mostly research papers. You can follow this for more details. This book contains 12 literature survey papers on the application, characterization and synthesis of Hybrid Nanomaterials. As a result the papers run a little longer than a typical journal paper at pages.

Aimed at the new graduate student who wants to quickly get themselves up to speed with recent techniques and applications as well a providing a good source of further research papers to read. The applications of hybrid nanomaterials principally take advantage of the potential high surface area to volume ratio and novel band structures created by the short range order. This means they have potential as catalysts or coatings in industry or as magnetically or electrically active markers in medical applications.

The content of the material, though to some degree technical, is accessible to people across multiple scientific disciplines as the material is presented at a fairly high level. More in depth commentary on techniques or theory is available from the cited references for each paper.

1. Introduction

It will probably seem dated fairly quickly as this is a very active field of research. March 2, - Published on Amazon. It's been more than a few decades since my college classes in material science. It's a field that I've always found interesting, but not exactly relevant to my work I mention this only to let the reader know that I'm not qualified to evaluate the technical merits of this work. With that caveat, I found this book to be very interesting. The articles are, as to be expected, quite technical, varying in level for me from readable to almost indecipherable.

The book reads like a hardbound journal with a common theme but different authors writing about their specific fields of research. Each article also includes a list of references for additional information. In this study, MMC was used to release and sustain two poorly soluble drugs tolfenamic acid and rimonabant in the supersaturated state with the assistance of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose. AMN was also used to synthesize a novel adhesive together with IBU without the addition of a polymer.

This adhesive was transparent, self-healing, shapeable, stretchable and reusable.

Amorphous magnesium carbonate nanomaterials : Synthesis, characterization and applications

In addition, the adhesive was able to glue a variety of materials, including metals, glass, paper and plastics even Teflon. These films exhibited both UV-shielding properties and moisture absorbance and retention abilities. They showed electronic conductivity, electrically active structure, the oxide ions mobility through the crystal lattice, variations on the content of the oxygen, thermal and chemical stability and supermagnetic, photocatalytic, thermoelectric, and dielectric properties.

Nanoperovskites have been utilized as catalysts in oxygen reduction and hydrogen evolution reactions exhibiting high electrocatalytic activity, lower activation energy and high electron transfer kinetics. Moreover, they are recently utilized in electrochemical sensing of alcohols, gases, glucose, H 2 O 2 , and neurotransmitters.

They can enhance the catalytic performance in terms of unique long-term stability, sensitivity, excellent reproducibility, selectivity, and anti-interference ability.

Amorphous magnesium carbonate nanomaterials: Synthesis, characterization and applications

In addition, organometallic halide perovskites exhibited efficient intrinsic properties to be utilized as a photovoltaic solar cell with good stability and high efficiency. The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support from Cairo University through the Vice President Office for Research Funds.

Licensee IntechOpen. This chapter is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 3.

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      Downloaded: Abstract Inorganic perovskite-type oxides are fascinating nanomaterials for wide applications in catalysis, fuel cells, and electrochemical sensing. Introduction 1. General introduction to perovskites The mineral CaTiO 3 was discovered by Geologist Gustav Rose in the Ural Mountains in , and it was named perovskite in recognition beholden to Count Lev Alexevich von Perovski, an eminent Russian mineralogist [ 1 — 5 ].

      Table 1. Crystallography of the perovskite structure In the ABO 3 form, B is a transition metal ion with small radius, larger A ion is an alkali earth metals or lanthanides with larger radius, and O is the oxygen ion with the ratio of Typical properties of perovskites Perovskite exhibited a variety of fascinating properties like ferroelectricity as in case of BaTiO 3 and superconductivity as in case of Ba 2 YCu 3 O 7. Table 2. Dielectric properties There are some properties inherent to dielectric materials like ferroelectricity, piezoelectricity, electrostriction, and pyroelectricity.

      Electrical conductivity and superconductivity One of the obvious properties of perovskites is superconductivity.

      Catalytic activity Perovskites showed excellent catalytic activity and high chemical stability; therefore, they were studied in a wide range in the catalysis of different reactions. Methods of perovskite synthesis 2. Solid-state reactions In solid-state reactions, the raw materials and the final products are in the solid-state therefore nitrates, carbonates, oxides, and others can be mixed with the stoichiometric ratios.

      Synthesis, Characterization, and Application

      Gas phase preparations Gas phase reaction or transport can be used for the deposition of perovskite films with a specific thickness and composition. Wet chemical methods solution preparation These methods included the sol-gel preparation, coprecipitation of metal ions using precipitating agents like cyanide, oxalate, carbonate, citrate, hydroxide ions, etc.

      Precipitation 2.

      4. Characterization Tools for Nanotechnology

      Oxalate-based preparation This method is built on the assimilation of oxalic acid with carbonates, hydroxides, or oxides producing metal oxalates, water, and carbon dioxide as products [ 22 ]. Hydroxide-based preparation This method is often used due to its low solubility and the possible variety of precipitation schemes. Acetate-based preparation Different perovskites were prepared by mixing acetate ions alone or together with nitrate ions with the metal ions salts. Citrate-based preparation Citrate precursors can be used and undergo several decomposition steps in the synthesis of perovskite [ 29 ].

      Cyanide-based preparation Rare earth orthoferrites REFeO 3 and cobalt compounds RECoO 3 were prepared using cyanides complexes via thermal decomposition of the rare earth ferricyanide and cobalticyanide compounds [ 30 ]. Thermal treatment 2. Freeze-drying The freeze-drying method can be achieved through the following steps: i dissolution of the starting salts in the suitable solvent, water in most cases; ii freezing the solution very fast to keep its chemical homogeneity; iii freeze-drying the frozen solution to get the dehydrated salts without passing through the liquid phase; and iv decomposition of the dehydrated salts to give the desired perovskite powder.

      Plasma spray-drying This method was applicable to various precursors, including gaseous, liquid, and solid materials. Combustion A redox reaction, which is thermally induced, occurs between the oxidant and fuel.

      Chapter 4 Perovskite Nanomaterials – Synthesis , Characterization , and Applications

      Doping of perovskites The different properties of perovskites and their catalytic activity are highly affected by the method of synthesis, conditions of calcination time, atmosphere, fuel, temperature, etc. Characterization of perovskites X-ray powder diffraction XRD can be used to differentiate the different phases of the prepared perovskites. XRD XRD can be used for the phase identification and the relative percents of different phases of the prepared materials.