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In addition, the injury inflicted on the cell plasma membrane during electrode entry and recording limits the duration of the recording session, usually to a small number of hours at most. By contrast, multielectrode devices are able to record and stimulate much larger populations of neurons for durations of weeks and even months.

This is made possible due to fabrication technologies that allow for a scalable design of hundreds or even thousands of electrodes. The inability to record intracellular signals from many neurons and for long periods of time has thus far prevented neuroscience from answering the most basic and interesting questions regarding learning and memory in large populations of neurons. We are therefore blind to the rich milieu of synaptic interactions, synaptic plasticity, and subthreshold network oscillations that reflect the state of the studied nervous system. This chapter describes a recently developed technique termed in - cell recording.

This technique yielded for the first time simultaneous, multisite, long-term recordings of action potentials and subthreshold synaptic potentials with matching quality and signal-to-noise ratio of conventional intracellular glass electrodes and the scalability of fabricated multielectrode devices. Takashi D. Kozai, Nicolas A.

Alba, Huanan Zhang, Nicolas A. Kotov, Robert A. Gaunt, Xinyan Tracy Cui.

David Rand - Google Scholar Citations

Cellular function and response has been a significant subject of human fascination since time immemorial and a major field of study that has improved understanding of the mechanics of the human body. Specifically the functioning of electrogenic or electrically active cells is of particular interest as these cells control several important physiological functions such as visualization, locomotion, and activities of key organs such as the brain, heart, eyes, ears, and spinal cord.

Advances in both engineering including microelectronics, signal processing, microelectronic and biomedical packaging techniques, and micromachining technologies and biology including electrophysiology, neuroscience, cardiology, etc. This chapter summarizes the technological achievements in the development of one such instrument which has been fundamental toward electrical interfacing with biological constructs—three-dimensional microelectrode arrays 3-D MEAs , also called 3-D multielectrode arrays or 3-D micromachined probes.

These electrode arrays are utilized in stimulating and recording applications both in vitro outside the body and in vivo within the body from neural tissue, neural cultures, neuromuscular tissue, cardiac tissue, cardiac cultures, 3-D cocultures of electrically active cells, stem cell cultures, and cultured networks of various electrically active cells e. Recent trends in the development of devices for electrophysiology involve the fabrication of electrodes with three-dimensional micro- and nanoprotrusions.

These devices take advantage of the natural capacity of cells to actively interact with nanostructured substrates in order to realize a more intimate cell-to-electrode coupling. In this chapter, we review the use of focused ion beam FIB technology as a versatile tool for fabricating nanostructures of different shape and size on top of freely chosen substrates.

This approach allows custom design and fabrication of nanoprotrusions to optimize cell-to-electrode electrical coupling, while at the same time allowing leeway to optimize the microelectronic substrate. Examples of enhanced interaction of cells with nanostructures are reviewed, with respect to nanoprotrusion geometry and surface functionalization, to illustrate the potential of FIB-based deposition as a tool for realizing new types of nanostructures for neurophysiological measurements.

Among the different methodologies used for electrophysiological measures in the brain, electrodes have played an undisputed role in high-quality intracellular signal recordings from a few neurons and in chronic extracellular measures with electrode-array probes implanted in the brain.

Electrode arrays providing multisite extracellular measures have become a key methodology in neuroscience for studying coding and transmission of information by neuronal ensembles [1] and for the development of Brain—Machine Interfaces BMIs and neural prosthetics [2—8].

This is mainly because electrode arrays combine the unique features of bidirectionality i. Driven by the compelling need of recording large numbers of neurons within the cortex and deeper structures, in a minimally invasive manner and over long time periods [2—4], the development of implantable brain probes based on microelectromechanical systems MEMS with arrays of microelectrodes has experienced a significant boost, leading to substantial optimization of pioneering approaches conceived in the s [5] as well as to the development of novel technologies.

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Multielectrode arrays MEAs and multitransistor arrays MTAs integrated in silicon microchips constitute two major representatives from this class of brain implantable probes. This may take some time to load. Jump to main content. Jump to site search. Journals Books Databases.

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Issue 25, Previous Article Next Article. From the journal: Journal of Materials Chemistry B. Photoelectric artefact from optogenetics and imaging on microelectrodes and bioelectronics: new challenges and opportunities. Takashi D. Vazquez abcd. This article is part of the themed collection: Bioelectronics. You have access to this article. Please wait while we load your content