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Franz Anton Mesmer

Particularly the study of the neurotransmitter serotonin and the effects of psychedelic drugs on the brain has been intensively researched over the past sixty years. It has been hypothesized that hallucinogens act either as an antagonist or an agonist at serotonin-2A receptors and will elicit a state that shares some common phenomenological features with early acute stages of the group of schizophrenia disorders. Findings implicate that abnormalities of serotonin function and the serotonergic system could be responsible for psychiatric disorders such as the spectrum of schizophrenia gating disorders and therefore, that serotonin agonist or antagonists might be useful in the treatment of e.

To investigate the underlying causative neurotransmitter mechanisms of this phenomenon, the CSTC cortico-striato-thalamo-cortical loop model has been formulated based on empirical neurobiological work.

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It is indicated that the common hypofrontality overactivation of frontal brain parts and cortical activation pattern induced by serotonergic and glutamatergic hallucinogens is due to a common disruption of thalamic gating of sensory and cognitive information. The CSTC feedback loop plays a major role in gating or filtering out external and internal information to the cortex. Thereby it influences the regulation of the level of awareness and attention. Disruption of the CSTC loop system is proposed to significantly influence information processing, e.

Failures of these attentional gating mechanisms might overload patients with the excessive processing of both sensory and cognitive stimuli, which could lead to a breakdown of cognitive integrity and difficulty in distinguishing self from non-self and failure to integrate an overwhelming flood of information.

Descriptive elaboration of the mentioned effects can be found in the literature on schizophrenia as well as in descriptions of hallucinogenic drug action. Despite strong evidence linking serotonin and psychosis, novel research indicates that some behavioral effects of drugs such as psilocybin appear to be independent of the classical 5-HT2A receptor-agonist actions, implying that the model described here is not the only underlying framework at play.

States of Consciousness, Springer Berlin Heidelberg - , Libro Tedesco | Libreria Universitaria

Interdisciplinary research enterprises have set out to study the convergence of serotonergic and glutamatergic models of psychosis and dynamic neurotransmitter interactions, derived from the study of hallucinogenic drugs, in the future. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the psychological concept. For the medical concept, see Altered level of consciousness.

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This article needs more medical references for verification or relies too heavily on primary sources. Please review the contents of the article and add the appropriate references if you can. Unsourced or poorly sourced material may be challenged and removed. April See also: Scholarly approaches of mysticism. See also: Default mode network , Psychosis , and Psychedelic drug.

See also: Sensory gating , Psychosis , and Psychedelic experience. Classic examples of discrete states of consciousness include waking, dreaming, deep sleep, intoxication, hypnosis, and successfully induced meditative states, to name just a few. J Altern Complement Med. An Aberdeen Doctor on Hypnotism.

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The faculties of reason and judgement, the elaborate and regulative faculties, in this altered state of consciousness, are obviously dependent on sense perceptions, and vary accordingly as they do. The Duties of the State with Reference to Epileptics. Read at the 4th Annual Meeting of the Assoc.

September Archives of General Psychiatry. Retrieved 29 September New York: Wiley. States of Consciousness. Altering Consciousness 2 volumes : Multidisciplinary Perspectives. Santa Barbara: Praeger. Social Research. The American Journal of Psychology. Pediatrics in Review.

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Bibcode : PLoSO Retrieved 5 December Philosophical Psychology. Harvard Health Publications. Endokrynologia Polska in Polish. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry. Skeptic's Dictionary. Retrieved 21 February Pharmacological Reviews. November Front Hum Neurosci. Vollenweider Trends Pharmacol Sci. Connor C. BMC Psychiatry. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link Edwards D.

Journal of Psychology. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link Revonsuo A. CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list link Englot, D. Child's Nervous System. Spikman J. Retrieved Avner JR PLoS Med. Bosinelli Marino Research Report on Behavioural Brain Research. Bosinelli Marino, PierCarlaCicogna Journal of Consciousness and Cognition. Louis Breger. Dennett Daniel C The Philosophical Review. ValdasNorekia, Windt Jennifer M Aldridge, D.

Chapter 7: Music and drug-induced altered states of consciousness. Revonsuo A. Farthing, G. William The psychology of consciousness. Englewood Cliffs, N. Bourguignon, Erika Ohio State Univ. Press, Columbus.

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  • Retrieved 22 February Buy eBook. Buy Hardcover. Buy Softcover. Rent the eBook. FAQ Policy. About this book In this accessible overview of current knowledge, an expert team of editors and authors describe experimental approaches to consciousness. This preview shows page 1 - 4 out of 21 pages.